Energy Market Knowledge
Electricity is produced in Poland in power stations, CHP plants and renewable energy sources. Energy distributors carry out two independent activities: energy trading and transport by distribution networks. Transport of energy from its generators to final customers is carried out by two types of networks belonging to different entities: transmission networks and distribution networks. Electricity trading in Poland is carried out in three main segments of the energy market: the contract market, the stock market, the balancing market.
Energy Market Division



The vast majority of production is still based on conventional fuels, ie coal and lignite. There is also an increase in the share of wind and other renewable energy sources. In the case of energy producers, the main forms of electricity sales are sales within regulated markets, where the leading role belongs to the power exchange and trading companies. In case of trading companies, they mainly sell energy to other trading companies and to final customers. They also provide direct sale to the power exchange, to a lesser, but still significant extent.




The distribution market operators, including distribution system operators (DSOs) and electricity distributors (trading companies), are retail market participants, alongside end users (both households and enterprises).
IRiESD is very important for the functioning of the retail market. These instructions lay down the rules for the operation of the retail electricity market, including changes in the seller, rules for determining and transmitting measurement data by the DSO, changes of entities responsible for trade balancing, and rules of dealing with the loss of the existing retailer by the customers in the household (reserve sale). Electricity consumers are entitled to receive electricity continuously and reliably from the selected electricity supplier.


More information on electricity market distribution:

Forms of the market

Basic forms of activity of market participants:


  • Bilateral contract market
  • Stock market, including the day-to-day market (SPOT transactions) and the property rights market (certificates in accordance with the law).
  • Balancing market, ie a technical market functioning as a day-to-day market, whose task is to balance the consumption of electricity by controlling domestic sources of production and the possibilities of inter-system exchange, which is operated by the TSO.

More information on electricity market distribution:

Market participants

There are several groups of participants in the electricity market:


  • Generators of electricity,
  • The transmission system operator,
  • Distribution system operators,
  • Trading company.

More information on electricity market distribution:

  • System power plants,
  • Local heat and power plants,
  • Power plants and CHP plants,
  • Hydro, wind, solar, biomass, biogas etc.



Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne S.A. They are the Transmission System Operator (TSO) whose scope of work includes:

  • Caring for the security of energy supply, by providing adequate transmission capacity and supervision of the functioning of the National Power System (NPS);
  • Effective and reliable traffic management and flow management in the 220 kV and 400 kV transmission networks, in cooperation with the OSD in a coordinated 110 kV network, and in cooperation with network operators in other countries,
  • Renovation, modernization and expansion of the transmission network,
  • Availability of production units connected to the transmission grid and coordinated 110 kV network, management of connections with power systems of other countries, taking into account technical and commercial (contractual) limitations in the power system,
  • Balancing of the power system, at the transmission level and coordinated 110 kV network, including the settlement of unbalanced network users,
  • Purchase of electricity to cover network losses in the transmission network, while respecting transparent and non-discriminatory market rules.

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Distribution System Operator (DSO) - is an electricity distribution company, responsible for network traffic in the distribution system, current and long-term security of the system, operation, maintenance and repairs of the distribution network and its necessary upgrades, including connections to other systems. electrical power. In practice, an energy company which is also responsible for the connection of new customers in the management of its assets, potential power outages related to planned work or failures and maintenance work. End customers connected to the distribution network have a distribution service agreement with the relevant DSO.
List of System Operators:



Trading companies dealing with the sale of energy to end customers and wholesale market activity.
The seller of dielectric energy under the applicable law and the necessary permits is obliged to include in the price of energy:

  • Conventional power (black)
  • Excise tax in accordance with the relevant laws,
  • Certificates of origin of electricity (colors) in accordance with the law,
  • Commercial balancing resulting from the customer's collection profile.

A list of applicable laws, regulations, Community law and court cases in the field of electricity market and trade.
Summary of legal acts:


Now everyone can change the electricity supplier. Simply choose a deal that suits you better and sign a contract with a new reseller. It is important not to do it hastily - the decision should be made consciously and do not sign any documents without thorough examination of them.
A dishonest seller of electricity
As in any industry, there are companies that use ignorance of potential customers and often contract with them often for them. It even happens that customers are not aware of the change of power supplier. This happens most often when you are unaware of the existence of competing energy companies on every energy company's representative as "collectors" or "you from power plants" whose home visit or signature request is not surprising and does not raise suspicion. Therefore, you should always check the credibility of the salesman.
After verifying vendor information, if you are interested in using a third-party vendor's offer and changing your vendor, you must carefully analyze the offer and documents that the seller sends to the seller.
Please check the terms and conditions of the contract, for example:

  • whether prices include VAT,
  • What are the payment options (including the date and method of payment)?
  • What is the duration of the contract and terms of its termination and whether it is renewed automatically?
  • fixed fees (eg subscription or commercial fees);

Additional charges, other paid services (eg additional insurance) and contractual penalties - all of these items may affect the amount of your electricity bill.
Set of consumer rights of electricity:


1. Contracts with the new seller

In order to maintain the continuity of energy supply, the new agreement should enter into force on the day following the date of expiration of the existing sales contract with the existing seller.

2. Termination of the sale contract to the existing seller (this step may be performed by the new seller)

The first change signifies the termination of the so-called. Comprehensive agreement, which also covers the terms of energy sales and distribution services.

3. Conclusion of a distribution agreement (this step can be performed by a new seller)

In the event of termination of a comprehensive agreement, apart from the new sales contract, a distribution service agreement with the distribution system operator (DSO) is also concluded. This agreement shall enter into force on the day following the date of termination of the existing comprehensive agreement. This contract can be concluded for an indefinite period of time. You do not have to say it again and again with subsequent changes to the sellers.

4. Inform the DSO of the conclusion of a new sales contract (this step is performed by the new seller)

The application must conform to the standards adopted by the relevant DSO. On the basis of the received DSO information, within 5 working days from the date of receipt of the application, the change of the seller shall be verified by the seller, and the Customer shall be verified on its premises and settled in his billing system. Upon verification, it will return to the Consignee and the new seller confirming the registration of the application or the refusal to register due to: lack of or incompatibility of the data contained in the application, lack of a general agreement with the seller or for other formal reasons. In the case of negative verification, the seller change procedure will be discontinued and must be repeated once the reasons for the negative verification have been removed.

5. Adjustment of measurement and settlement systems (counters)

After changing the electricity seller, you may need to adjust the measurement and billing system. The obligation to adjust the measurement and settlement system rests with the owner of the metering and settlement system (in the case of tariff A and B the owner of the system is the receiver, in the case of tariff C is owned by the DSO).

6. Final settlement with your current reseller

The counter reads on the day of the change of the seller, ie on the date of the new sales contract. The reading is carried out by the distribution system operator. The operator shall transmit the counter value (as of the date of change of the seller) to both the current and the new seller at the given time. On this basis, it is prepared by the current seller's final settlement.